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          1. CUSTOM MODEL GENERATION SERVICES

            Customized Mouse Models Created Using Gene Editing

            GemPharmatech constructs more than 4000 customized mouse models per year utilizing gene editing technology. This construction capacity ranks among the best in the world. Gene editing technology is the most common gene editing technology in use today and can be used to establish knockout mice (KO), conditional knockout mice (cKO), and knockin mice (KI). 

            Compared with other technologies, such as TALEN, ZFN, or ES, gene editing is simple, fast, and low cost.

             

            Advantages:

            • High quality: Create models with no random insertions and no serial recombination

            • High efficiency: Our platform results in a higher success rate and shorter delivery cycle than traditional methods

            • Multi-modification: Target multiple loci, multiple genes, and large fragments

            • Multi-background: Models can be created on a variety of genetic backgrounds, including C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, BALB/c, FVB, NOD/LTJ, and NCG

             

            Embryonic Stem Cell Homologous Recombination Technology for Creating Customized Mouse Models

            Embryonic Stem Cell (ES) Homologous Recombination (HR) technology is a gene editing technique that integrates foreign DNA into the genome of ES cells. It is suitable for establishing mouse models with complex editing strategies or when the DNA inserts needed are larger than gene editing technology can accommodate.


            Advantages:

            • Self-deletion of resistance genes can save 3 months in model generation time 

            • BAC shooting technology can achieve knock-in segments of 100-300kb 

            • Well-established technique in use since 2005 with more than 700 models successfully completed 

            • Models can be created on a variety of genetic backgrounds, including 129S6/SvEvTac and C57BL/6N 

             

            Creating Customized Mouse Models Using Transgenic Technology

            Transgenic technology is generally used to establish customized models for overexpressed or conditionally overexpressed mice. In transgenic technology customization, DNA is randomly integrated into the mouse genome by injecting DNA directly into a fertilized mouse egg pronucleus using microinjection technology. With the increasing efficiency of knockins (KI), most models now use the H11 or Rosa26 site for KI to create overexpressed models. 


            Comparison of transgenic technology and KI at the H11 or Rosa26 site

            Transgenic

            H11/Rosa26 Knockin

            F0 generation in as little as 8 weeks

            F1 generation in as little as 16 weeks

            Low technical difficulty

            High technical difficulty

            Different expression levels between founder lines, and expression levels over time (typically expression levels decrease)

            Same expression levels in all founder lines, and constant expression levels over time

            Random insertion site and number of copies

            Accurate insertion location and gene copy number by design

            Easy to alter or destroy the expression of other endogenous genes

            Does not affect expression other endogenous genes

            Poor genetic stability

            High genetic stability

            Large-scale work in establishing a stable line

            Produces a stable line directly for analysis


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